亚洲 欧洲 日产 国

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      Home History and Culture China Spring Festival 2011: Year of the Rabbit
      China Spring Festival 2011: Year of the Rabbit
      Learn Chinese - History and Culture

      2011 spring festival

      Chinese New Year or Spring Festival is one of the most important traditional Chinese holidays. It is sometimes called the Lunar New Year, especially by people outside China. The festival traditionally begins on the first day of the first lunar month (Chinese: 正月; pinyin: zhēng yuè) in the Chinese calendar and ends on the 15th; this day is called Lantern Festival. Chinese New Year's Eve is known as Chúxī. It literally means "Year-pass Eve"

      Celebrated in areas with large populations of ethnic Chinese, Chinese New Year is considered a major holiday for the Chinese and has had influence on the new year celebrations of its geographic neighbours, as well as cultures with whom the Chinese have had extensive interaction. These include Aboriginal Taiwanese people, Koreans, Mongolians, Nepalese, Bhutanese, Vietnamese, and formerly the Japanese before 1873. In Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and other countries or regions with significant Han Chinese populations, Chinese New Year is also celebrated, and has, to varying degrees, become part of the traditional culture of these countries. In Canada, although Chinese New Year is not an official holiday, many ethnic Chinese hold large celebrations and Canada Post issues New Year's themed stamps in domestic and international rates.

      Although the Chinese calendar traditionally does not use continuously numbered years, its years are often numbered from the reign of Huangdi outside China. But at least three different years numbered 1 are now used by various scholars, making the year 2008 "Chinese Year" 4706, 4705, or 4645.

      The Spring Festival 2011 falls on February 3. It ushers in the Chinese year of the rabbit. As the rabbit is an animal of peace and harmony, let´s hope the year of the rabbit brings more peace and prosperity for the world.


      Festivities

      alt" Red couplets and red lanterns are displayed on the door frames and light up the atmosphere. The air is filled with strong Chinese emotions. In stores in Beijing, Shanghai, Wuhan, and other cities, products of traditional Chinese style have started to lead fashion trend[s]. Buy yourself a Chinese-style coat, get your kids tiger-head hats and shoes, and decorate your home with some beautiful red Chinese knots, then you will have an authentic Chinese-style Spring Festival. ”

      The Chinese New Year celebrations are marked by visits to kin, relatives and friends, a practice known as "new-year visits" (Chinese: 拜年; pinyin: bàinián). New clothings are usually worn to signify a new year. The colour red is liberally used in all decorations. Red packets are given to juniors and children by the married and elders.

      Days before the new year
      On the days before the New Year celebration Chinese families give their home a thorough cleaning. There is a Cantonese saying "Wash away the dirt on ninyabaat" (年廿八,洗邋遢), but the practice is not usually restricted on nin'ya'baat (年廿八, the 28th day of month 12). It is believed the cleaning sweeps away the bad luck of the preceding year and makes their homes ready for good luck. Brooms and dust pans are put away on the first day so that luck cannot be swept away. Some people give their homes, doors and window-frames a new coat of red paint. Homes are often decorated with paper cutouts of Chinese auspicious phrases and couplets. Purchasing new clothing, shoes and receiving a hair-cut also symbolize a fresh start .

      In many households where Buddhism or Taoism is prevalent, home altars and statues are cleaned thoroughly, and altars that were adorned with decorations from the previous year are also taken down and burned a week before the new year starts, and replaced with new decorations. Taoists (and Buddhists to a lesser extent) will also "send gods" (送神), an example would be burning a paper effigy of the Kitchen God, the recorder of family functions. This is done so that the kitchen god can report to the Jade Emperor of the family household's transgressions and good deeds. Families often offer sweet foods (such as candy) in order to "bribe" gods into reporting good things about the family.

      Chinese New Year lion dance at The Pavilion, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.The biggest event of any Chinese New Year's Eve is the dinner every family will have. A dish consisting of fish will appear on the tables of Chinese families. It is for display for the New Year's Eve dinner. This meal is comparable to Christmas dinner in the West. In northern China, it is customary to make dumplings (jiaozi 餃子) after dinner and have it around midnight. Dumplings symbolize wealth because their shape is like a Chinese tael. By contrast, in the South, it is customary to make a new year cake (Niangao, 年糕) after dinner and send pieces of it as gifts to relatives and friends in the coming days of the new year. Niangao literally means increasingly prosperous year in year out. After the dinner, some families go to local temples, hours before the new year begins to pray for a prosperous new year; however in modern practice, many households hold parties and even hold a countdown to the new lunar year. Beginning in the 1980s, the CCTV New Year's Gala was broadcast minutes before the start of the New Year.

      altFirst day of the new year
      The first day is for the welcoming of the deities of the heavens and earth, officially beginning at midnight. Many people, especially Buddhists, abstain from meat consumption on the first day because it is believed that this will ensure longevity for them. Some consider lighting fires and using knives to be bad luck on New Year's Day, so all food to be consumed is cooked the day before.

      Most importantly, the first day of Chinese New Year is a time when families visit the oldest and most senior members of their extended family, usually their parents, grandparents or great-grandparents.

      Some families may invite a lion dance troupe as a symbolic ritual to usher in the Lunar New Year as well as to evict bad spirits from the premises. Members of the family who are married also give red packets containing cash to junior members of the family, mostly children and teenagers.

      While fireworks and firecrackers are traditionally very popular, some regions have banned them due to concerns over fire hazards, which have resulted in increased number of fires around New Years and challenged municipal fire departments' work capacity. For this reason, various city governments (e.g., Hong Kong, and Beijing, for a number of years) issued bans over fireworks and firecrackers in certain premises of the city. As a substitute, large-scale fireworks have been launched by governments in cities like Hong Kong to offer citizens the experience.

      alt

      Second day of the new year
      Incense is burned at the graves of ancestors as part of the offering and prayer ritual.The second day of the Chinese New Year is for married daughters to visit their birth parents. Traditionally, daughters who have been married may not have the opportunity to visit their birth families frequently.

      On the second day, the Chinese pray to their ancestors as well as to all the gods. They are extra kind to dogs and feed them well as it is believed that the second day is the birthday of all dogs.

      Business people of the Cantonese dialect group will hold a 'Hoi Nin' prayer to start their business on the 2nd day of Chinese New Year. The prayer is done to pray that they will be blessed with good luck and prosperity in their business for the year.

      Third and fourth days of the new year
      The third and fourth day of the Chinese New Year are generally accepted as inappropriate days to visit relatives and friends due to the following schools of thought. People may subscribe to one or both thoughts.

      1) It is known as "chì kǒu" (赤口), meaning that it is easy to get into arguments. It is suggested that the cause could be the fried food and visiting during the first two days of the New Year celebration.

      2) Families who had an immediate kin deceased in the past 3 years will not go house-visiting as a form of respect to the dead, but people may visit them on this day. Some people then conclude that it is inauspicious to do any house visiting at all. The third day of the New Year is allocated to grave-visiting instead.

      Fifth day of the new year
      In northern China, people eat Jiǎozi (simplified Chinese: 餃子; traditional Chinese: 餃子) (dumplings) on the morning of Po Wu (破五). This is also the birthday of the Chinese god of wealth. In Taiwan, businesses traditionally re-open on this day, accompanied by firecrackers.

      Seventh day of the new year
      The seventh day, traditionally known as renri 人日, the common man's birthday, the day when everyone grows one year older.

      It is the day when tossed raw fish salad, yusheng, is eaten. This is a custom primarily among the overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia and Singapore. People get together to toss the colourful salad and make wishes for continued wealth and prosperity.

      For many Chinese Buddhists, this is another day to avoid meat.

      Ninth day of the new year
      The ninth day of the New Year is a day for Chinese to offer prayers to the Jade Emperor of Heaven (天公) in the Taoist Pantheon. The ninth day is traditionally the birthday of the Jade Emperor.

      This day is especially important to Hokkiens and Teochews (Min Nan speakers). Come midnight of the eighth day of the new year, Hokkiens will offer thanks giving prayers to the Emperor of Heaven. Offerings will include sugarcane as it was the sugarcane that had protected the Hokkiens from certain extermination generations ago. Tea is served as a customary protocol for paying respect to an honored person.

       

      Fifteenth day of the new year
      altThe fifteenth day of the new year is celebrated as Yuánxiāo jié (元宵節), otherwise known as Chap Goh Mei in Fujian dialect. Rice dumplings Tangyuan (simplified Chinese: 湯圓; traditional Chinese: 湯圓; pinyin: tāngyuán), a sweet glutinous rice ball brewed in a soup, is eaten this day. Candles are lit outside houses as a way to guide wayward spirits home. This day is celebrated as the Lantern Festival, and families walk the street carrying lighted lanterns.

      This day often marks the end of the Chinese New Year festivities.

      Reunion dinner
      A reunion dinner is held on New Year's Eve where members of the family, near and far away, get together for the celebration. The venue will usually be in or near the home of the most senior member of the family. The New Year's Eve dinner is very sumptuous and traditionally includes chicken and fish. In some areas, fish (simplified Chinese: 魚; traditional Chinese: 魚; pinyin: yú) is included, but not eaten completely (and the remainder is stored overnight), as the Chinese phrase "may there be surpluses every year" (traditional Chinese: 年年有餘; simplified Chinese: 年年有余; pinyin: nián nián yǒu yú) sounds the same as "may there be fish every year."

      In mainland China, many families will banter whilst watching the CCTV New Year's Gala in the hours before midnight.

      Red packets for the immediate family are sometimes distributed during the reunion dinner. These packets often contain money in certain numbers that reflect good luck and honorability. Several foods are consumed to usher in wealth, happiness, and good fortune. Several of the Chinese food names are homophones for words that also mean good things.

      alt 

      春節簡介
      春節是中國民間最隆重最富有特色的傳統節日,是我國民間最隆重、最熱鬧的一個古老節日。一般指除夕和正月初一,是一年的第一天,又叫陰歷年,俗稱“過年”。但在民間,傳統意義上的春節是指從臘月初八的臘祭或臘月二十三或二十四的祭灶,一直到正月十五,其中以除夕和正月初一為高潮。在春節期間,我國的漢族和很多少數民族都要舉行各種活動以示慶祝。這些活動均以祭祀神佛、祭奠祖先、除舊布新、迎禧接福、祈求豐年為主要內容?;顒迂S富多彩,帶有濃郁的民族特色。在天津過春節還有掛中國結的習慣,大年30之前天津人有到天津古文化街喬香閣請中國結的習俗,取喬香納福之意。
      春節是漢族最重要的節日,而且滿、蒙古,瑤、壯、白、高山、赫哲、哈尼、達斡爾、侗、黎等十幾個少數民族也有過春節的習俗,只是過節的形式上有自己的特點。
      春節不同時代有不同名稱。在先秦時叫“上日”、“元日”、“改歲”、“獻歲”等;到了兩漢時期,又被叫為“三朝”、“歲旦”、“正旦”、“正日”;魏晉南北朝時稱為“元辰”、“元日”、“元首”、 “歲朝”等;到了唐宋元明,則稱為“元旦”、“元 ”、“歲日”、“新正”、“新元”等;而清代,一直叫“元旦”或“元日”。
      自西漢以來,春節的習俗一直延續到今天。
      2006年5月20日,“春節”民俗經國務院批準列入第一批國家級非物質文化遺產名錄。
       

      春節由來
      春節古稱“正旦”、“歲首”、“三元”等。1911年12月31日,中華民國湖北軍政府在發布的《內務部關于中華民國改用陽歷的通諭》中,明確將年節稱為“春節”。到1949年9月27日,中國人民政治協商會議第一屆全體會議進一步明確農歷正月初一稱為“春節”,“春節”之名正式列入中國節日法典。
      “年”的甲骨文寫法為上面部分為“禾”字,下面部分為“人”字。金文的“年”字也與甲骨文相同也從禾、從人。小篆的“年”寫作“上禾下千”,《說文解字·禾部》:“年,谷熟也。從禾,從千聲。”小篆將“人”字訛變為“千”了,因而許慎用了此說,而“千”字本為有飾的人,此解也并不矛盾。“禾”是谷物的總稱,不能錯解僅為“小麥”。年成的好壞,主要由“禾”的生長和收成情況來決定,而現在已發掘出來的甲骨文中的“禾”字,幾乎都是看上去沉甸甸地被壓彎了腰,可見它象征著取得谷物生產的大豐收。“年”字下面的“人”字又作何解釋呢?從甲骨文看,“年”字好象是人頭上頂著谷物。
      另外還有一種傳說,中國古時候有一種叫“年”的怪獸,頭長觸角,兇猛異常。“年”長年深居海底,每到除夕才爬上岸,吞食牲畜傷害人命。因此,每到除夕這天,村村寨寨的人們扶老攜幼逃往深山,以躲避“年”獸的傷害。有一年除夕,從村外來了個乞討的老人。鄉親們一片匆忙恐慌景象,只有村東頭一位老婆婆給了老人些食物,并勸他快上山躲避“年”獸,那老人捋髯笑道:“婆婆若讓我在家呆一夜,我一定把‘年’獸攆走。”老婆婆仍然繼續勸說,乞討老人笑而不語。
      半夜時分,“年”獸闖進村。它發現村里氣氛與往年不同:村東頭老婆婆家,門貼大紅紙,屋內燭火通明。“年”獸渾身一抖,怪叫了一聲。將近門口時,院內突然傳來“砰砰啪啪”的炸響聲,“年”渾身戰栗,再不敢往前湊了。原來,“年”最怕紅色、火光和炸響。這時,婆婆的家門大開,只見院內一位身披紅袍的老人在哈哈大笑。“年”大驚失色,狼狽逃躥了。第二天是正月初一,避難回來的人們見村里安然無恙十分驚奇。這時,老婆婆才恍然大悟,趕忙向鄉親們述說了乞討老人的許諾。這件事很快在周圍村里傳開了,人們都知道了驅趕“年”獸的辦法。(客家人的傳說)從此每年除夕,家家貼紅對聯、燃放爆竹;戶戶燭火通明、守更待歲。初一一大早,還要走親串友道喜問好。這風俗越傳越廣,成了中國民間最隆重的傳統節日。

       

       

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      亚洲 欧洲 日产 国
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