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      Home History and Culture Classical Gardens of China
      Classical Gardens of China
      Learn Chinese - History and Culture

       Classical Garden
      Classical Chinese garden design, which intend to recreate natural landscapes in miniature, is nowhere better illustrated than in the nine gardens in the historic city of Suzhou (sū zhōu 蘇州). They are generally acknowledged to be masterpieces of the genre. Dating from the 11th-19th century, the gardens reflect the profound metaphysical importance of natural beauty in Chinese culture in their meticulous (yì sī bù gǒu 一絲不茍) design.

      Suzhou is China's well-known "city of gardens"(yuán lín chéng shì 園林城市), which tops all others in both the number and the artistry of gardens. Dating from Pi Jiang Garden (pì jiāng yuán 辟疆園) of the Eastern Jing Dynasty (dōng jìn 東晉), Suzhou's art of gardening has undergone a history of 1, 500 years. There were once over 200 gardens in the city,and 69 of them are still in good preservation today. The concept of Suzhou classical gardens has gone beyond the city limits,since it generally refers to all those private gardens built in the  south of the Yangtze River (cháng jiāng 長江).
       

      Classical Garden
      Classical Garden
      Classical Garden
      Classical Garden

      The Suzhou garden originated from the desire to retire from the strife of officialdom (guān chǎng 官場) and to shun (bì miǎn 避免) from worldly affairs. It seeks the return to Nature and the cultivation of temperament (xìng qíng 性情). In Taoist (dào jiào 道教) philosophy and the refinement of culture underlies the theme of the garden. Hills and waters,flowers and trees,pavilion, terraces,towers and halls constitute the basic garden elements,while the prominent tone is expressed in the dark colour of roof tiles,the grey of bricks,and chestnut (lì shù 栗樹) brown of wooden pillars.

      Classical GardenSuzhou garden is the Nature in nutshell ,which enables one to "feel the charm of mountains,forest and springs without going out of the noisy surroundings of the town". Its human interest also lies in that the architect, philosopher, poet, painter, and common folk can all find in it the idea,the flavour,the lines and the rhythm. The unfolding of the garden vistas (yuǎn jǐng 遠景) is the verisimilitude (bī zhēn 逼真) of a landscape scroll. When enjoying tea, poem,flower arrangement or playing musical instrument in the garden,one gains the most natural inspiration. To those tourists desiring to understand China, Suzhou garden is the best museum.

      Local chronicles reveal that during its heyday (fán róng 繁榮), Suzhou city held nearly 200 gardens, topping the whole nation. Suzhou gardens have their own characteristics in layout, structure and style.The Four Classical Gardens of Suzhou, i.e.The Surging Waves Pavilion (cāng làng ting 滄浪亭), The Lion Grove Garden (shī zi lín 獅子林), The Humble Administrator's Garden (zhuō zhèng yuán 拙政園) and The Lingering Garden (liú yuán 留園) represent the different styles of Song (sòng 宋朝), Yuan (yuán 元朝), Ming (míng 明朝) and Qing (qīng 清朝) Dynasties.

      中國古典園林
            中國古典園林是指以江南私家園林和北方皇家園林為代表的中國山水園林形式,在世界園林發展史上獨樹一幟,是全人類寶貴的歷史文化遺產。蘇州園林吸收了江南園林建筑藝術的精華,是中國優秀的文化遺產,理所當然被聯合國列為人類與自然文化遺產。蘇州園林善于把有限空間巧妙地組成變幻多端的景致,結構上以小巧玲瓏取勝。素有“江南園林甲天下,蘇州園林甲江南”之譽。
      蘇州古典園林的歷史可上溯至公元前6世紀春秋時吳王的園囿,私家園林最早見于記載的是東晉(4世紀)的辟疆園,歷代造園興盛,名園日多。明清時期,蘇州成為中國最繁華的地區,私家園林遍布古城內外。16~18世紀全盛時期,蘇州有園林200余處,現在保存尚好的有數十處,并因此使蘇州素有“人間天堂”的美譽。 
           
            蘇州園林的重要特色之一,在于它不僅是歷史文化的產物,同時也是中國傳統思想文化的載體。表現在園林廳堂的命名、匾額、楹聯、書條石、雕刻、裝飾,以及花木寓意、疊石寄情等,不僅是點綴園林的精美藝術品,同時儲存了大量的歷史、文化、思想和科學信息,其物質內容和精神內容都極其深廣。其中有反映和傳播儒、釋、道等各家哲學觀念、思想流派的;有宣揚人生哲理,陶冶高尚情操的;還有借助古典詩詞文學,對園景進行點綴、生發、渲染,使人于棲息游賞中,化景物為情思,產生意境美,獲得精神滿足。而園中匯集保存完好的中國歷代書法名家手跡,又是珍貴的藝術品,具有極高的文物價值。另外,蘇州古典園林作為宅園合一的第宅園林,其建筑規制又反映了中國古代江南民間起居休憩的生活方式和禮儀習俗,是了解和研究古代中國江南民俗的實物資料。
            
            作為蘇州古典園林典型例證的拙政園、留園、網師園和環秀山莊,產生于蘇州私家園林發展的鼎盛時期,以其意境深遠、構筑精致、藝術高雅、文化內涵豐富而成為蘇州眾多古典園林的典范和代表。蘇州以園林見長讓人感嘆園藝的巧奪天工.以拙政園,留園,網師園,環秀山莊為代表的古典園林于1997年12月被列入“世界文化與自然遺產名錄”。 2000年增補滄浪亭、獅子林、耦園、藝圃、退思園為世界文化遺產。其中滄浪亭、獅子林、拙政園和留園分別代表著宋(公元960~1276年)、元(公元1271~1368年)、明(公元1368~1644年)、清(公元1644~1911年)四個朝代的藝術風格,被稱為蘇州“四大名園”。蘇州園林代表了中國私家園林的風格和藝術水平,是不可多得的旅游勝地。

       

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      亚洲 欧洲 日产 国
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